India at 60…Growing and Shining (Part-II)

On 15th August 2006, when Prime Minister Manmohan Singh will address the nation from Rampant of Lal Quila, India will be completing its 59 years of Independence and will be entering into “Diamond Jubilee” year of its existence. Let the celebrations continue for centuries and keep the tri-color high. Before I proceed further I like to share with you the Speech of Pt. Jawahar Lal Nehru delivered on 15th August 1947…Tryst with Destiny…

“Long years ago we made a tryst with destiny, and now the time comes when we shall redeem our pledge, not wholly or in full measure, but very substantially. At the stroke of midnight hour, when the world sleeps, India will awake to life and freedom. haltonmachining

A moment comes which comes but rarely in history, when we step out from the old to the new, then an age ends, and when the soul of a nation, long suppressed, finds utterance. It is fitting that at this solemn moment we take the pledge of dedication to India and her people and to the still larger cause of humanity. At the dawn of history India started on her unending quest, and trackless centuries are filled with her striving and the grandeur of her successes and her failures. Through good and ill fortune alike she has never lost sight of that quest or forgotten the ideals which gave her strength. We end today a period of ill fortune and India discovers herself again.
The achievement we celebrate today is but a step, an opening of opportunity, to the greater triumphs and achievements that await us. Are we brave enough and wise enough to grasp this opportunity and accept the challenge of the future? Freedom and power bring responsibility. That responsibility rests upon this assembly, a sovereign body representing the sovereign people of India. Before the birth of freedom we have endured all the pains of labor and our hearts are heavy with the memory of this sorrow. Some of those pains continue even now.

Continuation from PART-I

Government of India

India is a SOVERRIGN, SOCIALIST, SECULAR, and DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC. The Constitution of India, which came into force on 26th January 1950, is the supreme law of the land. India has a federal form of government (with a high degree of Centralization) and a bicameral parliament operating under a Westminster-Style parliamentary system. It has three branches of governance: the Legislature, Executive and Judiciary. wrdesignprint

For the Union government of India, the President is the Head of State, and has a largely ceremonial role, including interpreting the constitution, signing laws into action, issuing administrative orders and issuing pardons. He is also the Commander-in-chief of India’s Armed Forces. An electoral college elects the President indirectly for five-year terms, consisting of the members of Parliament and of all the state Legislative Assemblies in a very complicated scheme. The Prime Minister is the de facto head of Government, and has most executive powers. He or she is appointed by the President. As a general rule and rather a very strict convention, the President appoints only that person as the Prime Minister who enjoys the support of the majority of the members in the Lok Sabha (the lower house of the Parliament), and serves a five-year term, with re-selection possible.

The legislature of India is the bicameral Parliament (Sansad), which consists of the upper house called the Rajya Sabha (Council of States), and the lower house called the Lok Sabha (House of People). The 245-member Rajya Sabha is chosen indirectly through the state Legislative Assemblies, and has a staggered six-year term. Each state sends members to the Rajya Sabha in a proportion of its population (unlike the Senate of the United States). The 545-member Lok Sabha is directly elected by popular vote for a five-year term, and is the determinative constituent of political power and government formation. All Indian citizens above age 18 are eligible to vote. The Lok Sabha is subject to dissolution by the President but the Rajya Sabha is not.

The executive arm consists of the President, Vice-President and the Council of Ministers (the Cabinet being its executive committee), headed by the Prime Minister. Any minister holding a portfolio must be a member of either house of parliament. In the Indian parliamentary system, the executive is subordinate to the legislature. All ministers are appointed and dismissed by the President on the advice of the Prime Minister. The President is bound to follow the advice of the Council of Ministers while making any executive decision or order, but may ask the Council to reconsider its decision once. For more info please visit these sites :-

India’s independent judiciary consists of the Supreme Court, headed by the Chief Justice of India–all appointed by the President. The Supreme Court has both original jurisdiction over disputes between states and the Centre, and appellate jurisdiction over the High Courts of India. Each of these states has a tiered system of lower courts. The Supreme Court has the right to declare laws and orders passed by the government as null and void if they are in conflict with the Constitution. Impeachment of the President and the judges of the Supreme Court requires a two-thirds majority in each house of the Parliament. Removal of the Prime Minister requires a simple majority in the Lok Sabha.


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